Tydings-McDuffie Act, also called Philippine Commonwealth and Independence Act, (1934), the U.S. statute that provided for Philippine independence, to take effect on July 4, 1946, after a 10-year transitional period of Commonwealth government. The Philippines was an American colony prior to the signing of the act.
In 1934, Manuel L. Quezon, the President of the Senate of the Philippines, headed a "Philippine Independence mission" to Washington, D.C. were they successfully lobbied Congress and secured the act's passage.
Following the terms of the independence act, Filipinos elected delegates for a constitutional convention on July 10, and Roosevelt approved the Philippine constitution on March 23, 1935. The Commonwealth government, under the presidency of Manuel Quezon, was inaugurated in November of that year. For the next 10 years, the Philippines remained U.S. territory. Foreign affairs, defense, and monetary matters remained under U.S. jurisdiction, but all other internal matters were in the hands of the Philippine people. During the Commonwealth period, duties were to be imposed on a graduated scale, but the trade provisions were subsequently amended in 1939 in favor of the Philippines.
It also established limitations on Filipino immigration to the United States with a quota of 50 immigrants allowed per year.
"I would rather have a country run like hell by Filipinos than a country run like heaven by the Americans because however a bad Filipino government might be, we can always change it." ~ Manuel Quezon
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